Journal of Pyrotechnics

 

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Titles and Abstracts for Issue No. 10, Winter 1999

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Burst Process of Spherical Aerial Shells
  Y. Takishita, H. Shibamoto, T. Matsuzaki, K. Chida, F. Hosoya, [Hosoya Kako, Co., Ltd.] and
N. Kubota
[ Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, Japan] **
 

Abstract: The burst process of spherical fireworks shells has been examined experimentally and presented as a simplified physical model. The pressure in a shell was measured with a strain-type pressure transducer, which was inserted into the center of the shell. After the ignition of the bursting powder, pressure increased exponentially and the pressure also decreased exponentially, when the shell burst. The analysis of the pressure-versus-time curve indicated that the acting force on the stars in the shell was found to be dependent on various physical parameters: 1) the shape and material of the shell, 2) the characteristics of the bursting charge,and 3) the stars in the shell. The bursting process proposed in this study was confirmed by the observed ejection process of the stars in a Japanese-style, "warimono"* spherical shaped shell. [*A spherical shaped shell containing stars and bursting charge that produces a chrysanthemum-flower shaped display in sky.]

Keywords: aerial shell pressure , internal pressure, impulse pressure, aerial fireworks shell burst process, star acceleration

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Six Methods for Estimating the Formation Enthalpy of Organic Compounds
  Will Meyerriecks [Tampa, FL, USA]
 

Abstract: Finding published enthalpy of formation values for organic compounds is not always possible. Six methods are outlined for estimating this property, each utilizing different data that is generally readily available in one form or another. Additionally, a dozen different references for published thermodynamic data are provided.

Keywords: Benson group, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of formation, flame temperature, free energy minimization, higher heating value

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High-Nitrogen Fuels for Low-Smoke Pyrotechnics
  David E. Chavez, Michael A. Hiskey and Darren L. Naud [ Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA]
 

Abstract: It has been demonstrated that the high-nitrogen compound, 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT), can be utilized as a pyrotechnic fuel requiring small amounts of metal salts for coloring the flame. In addition, DHT pyrotechnic formulations using non-metallic oxidants, specifically ammonium perchlorate and ammonium nitrate, produce little smoke when burned. In light of this application of high-nitrogen compounds, we have determined that two other high-nitrogen fuels, bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate (BTAw), 5,5'-bis-1H-tetrazole (BT) and their salts are likely candidates for low-smoke pyrotechnic fuels. The various characteristics of these fuels have been examined in some detail; these include impact sensitivity with and without oxidant ammonium perchlorate, spectra of colored flames, and thermal analyses of their hydrates and salts.

Keywords: 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine, 5,5-bis-1H-tetrazole, bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine, colored flame, flame color, high nitrogen compositions, low smoke

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Measurement of the Effectiveness of Various Mitigation Methods at Reducing the Projectile Hazards from Fragmenting Steel Firework Mortar Tubes
  S. G. Myatt [ Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom, SK17 9JN] and M. R. Edwards
 

Abstract: Firework maroon shells were exploded inside mild steel spiral wound mortar tubes with various mitigation systems in place. It was found that the number of fragments was substantially reduced when the tube was prevented from expanding freely by sandbags or by burial of the tube in sand. For mitigation systems that allowed free expansion of the tube, the number of fragments was similar to that produced when no mitigation was employed. Mitigation systems should extend to the top of the tube to prevent fragments from hitting spectators or operators at displays.

Keywords: steel mortar fragment, fireworks mortar, mortar explosion, mortar fragment, fireworks hazard nitigation, steel mortar, salute-in-mortar explosions, sandbag

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Combustion of Ti/C Pyrolants
  Michinori Takizuka, Toshio Onda, Takuo Kuwahara, and Naminosuke Kubota
[Mitsubishi Electric Corporation,  Kamakura, Japan]
 

Abstract: The thermochemical characteristics of pyrolants composed of titanium (Ti) and carbon (C) were studied in order to develop high energy release materials used for igniters and fireworks. Since the Ti and C reaction occurs only at temperatures above 1200 K, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was mixed with the Ti/C pyrolants as an oxidizer. Various types of experiments were performed to gain information on the role of each ingredient. The results, measured by differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry, indicated that PTFE melts at about 605 K and reacts exothermically at about 830 K with Ti. The burning rate of the pyrolants increases as the mixing ratio of Ti and C approaches the stoichiometric ratio, (i.e., the burning rate increases as the adiabatic flame temperature increases within the range of the samples tested). Since the reaction starts from the surface of the Ti particles, the burning rate increases as the total surface area of the Ti particles increases.

Keywords: poly-tetrafluroethylene, PTFE, pyrolant, titanium / carbon

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Effect of Differing Charcoal Types Upon Handmade Lift Powder
  Charles Wilson [Evergreen, CO , USA]
 

Abstract: Experimental production of charcoal via the retort method is discussed. Charcoals were made from various substances; of special interest were woods belonging to the Salicaceae (willow) family. Lift powders were made using these charcoals and their performance compared using a device for testing powders under conditions similar to those used for propelling fireworks aerial shells. The author found that handmade powders often outperformed commercially available powders in this application.

Keywords: Black Powder performance testing, lift powder, charcoal types

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Communications :
 
  • Peak In-Mortar Aerial Shell Accelerations by K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

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  • Letter to the Editor from N. Kahn about "Fog" review article in Issue 7, with reply from M. Rossol, author of review article
  • Review by B. Sturman of R. Lancaster’s book Fireworks Principles and Practice

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  • Review by L. Weinman of P.W. Cooper’s book Explosives Engineering

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  • Review by B. Sturman of T. Shimizu’s English translation of Selected Pyrotechnic Publications of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 3: Studies on Fireworks Colored-Flame Compositions

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  • Review by J. Bergman of the Confederation of British Industry’s Hearing Protection A Guide for Those Who Manufacture, Test, or Use Explosives

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  • Review by K. Kosanke of J. Akhavan’s The Chemistry of Explosives

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  • Review by B. Sturman of J. Akhavan’s The Chemistry of Explosives

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